This social media resource is designed to be the go-to for people in museums who may not yet have decided if social media is something their museum should be on board with, and for those who are ready to take that first step but might not be sure where to begin or how to focus their strategic and practical work.
You’ll find out more about what social media is and what it offers museums, as well as gain some insight into how using social media as an organisation can or should be done. Myths will be busted, you’ll get some top tips and Dos and Don’ts, plus a quick overview of some of the main social media channels used by museums.
Why museums are (or should get) on board:
What social media is
What exactly is social media? How do we condense such a nebulous and far-reaching phenomenon in a useful way? Amelia Wong (2015) calls social media “the proliferation of digitally networked sites, applications and tools that encourage and facilitate social interaction, communication and information exchange.” The second half of that definition can easily be applied to museums too; the heart that beats in the chest of social media is one shared in large part by museums and most other cultural organisations.
From the high-profile Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, to Pinterest, TikTok and Snapchat, social media also includes platforms such as YouTube and WhatsApp. All of these are tools used to communicate, share, interact, support friends, network, show off, and more. Most are accessible on desktop (and many started that way), but all are delivered through dedicated apps, bringing people’s social networks into the palm of their hand via smartphones.
What social media offers museums
Social media is relatable, accessible and a fundamental part of modern life. There’s also great value in museums getting on board with social media’s multifaceted uses, and its range of users. Importantly, there’s no “one way” for museums to use each platform: social media allows one-to-one communication, as well as the ability to broadcast information widely; social media can be a soapbox; it can encourage participation and get audiences involved in a conversation; it’s also a great place to listen to your audiences and understand them more. This can all manifest in different ways, and they are not mutually exclusive.
Through social media, museums can reach their audiences directly, and vice versa, bringing us closer than ever before to people who visit our institutions, as well as those who may never get the chance.
When done well, social media makes museums friendlier and more relatable. The fact that cultural institutions are relevant enough to feature in our audiences’ updates to their friends is something not only to be celebrated but fostered: we’re invited to share the same space as their celebrity heroes, essential services, favourite products and, more poignantly, their friends and family. The community we build with our audiences through social media allows museums to extend themselves beyond their physical building and into people’s lives.
The reality of museums on social media:
Social media is an extension of the museum
A museum’s visitor service team is one of the most important in the whole organisation: they are the frontline, the cheerleaders, the omnipotent face of the museum. Front of house staff interact with visitors all day, every day and personally shape their experience of the museum. A museum’s social media offer does the same thing online.
A museum’s “personality” results from a combination of its history, setting, themes and approach, most visibly expressed through branding. While social media is heavily influenced by all of this, it also plays a key role in shaping the personality of the institution. Social media, with its accessible community ethos, has a certain tone and offers museums a chance to sidestep outdated perceptions or even subvert expectations, perhaps leading to a shift in its character or, even, the ability to flex and express its personality more fully.
Far from being yet another museum silo, social media is a bridge that connects everything a museum is and does: from showcasing the museum’s live programme to recruiting staff for vacancies; from sharing objects that otherwise wouldn’t see the light of day to asking for audience feedback or inviting content to inform object records or an exhibition. In addition to serving/facilitating teams across the whole institution in various ways, social media also fulfils the museum’s mission on its own terms. Social media is (or should be) sewn into the very fabric of the museum, whilst also being a creative and dynamic space to experiment in new ways of engaging, as only social media can.
While social media can be an essential part of a museum’s activity, there are still a lot of assumptions made about what it can and can’t do or how easy it is. Below are a few of these myths (good and bad) that are still occasionally proliferated, doing nobody any favours.
Social media is a fix-all solution
Social media can do a lot, and can have a great impact, but it won’t solve everything. If tickets aren’t shifting for an event, social media can only do so much. If you’re trying to reach young people, social media might not be the most efficient way to do that. Don’t be tempted into believing that using social will make all your problems go away.
Social media is easy and free
Social media is a fun way to engage with audiences and, if you know why and how you’re doing it, it’s straightforward. That’s part of its beauty, along with being able to use the platforms for free. But that’s also the rub: don’t assume good social media practice comes without putting the requisite work in. And while the channels are free in terms of money, there are other costs.
A good social media presence requires investment in creative people able to dedicate time to it. Short-term and long-term planning are essential. Those running it need trust from above to be able to experiment and they must know their work is valued. Significant time and effort are needed to grow an invested audience, without whom you’re just shouting into a void.
If you can dedicate time to running the channels, think about them strategically and carve out an approach that fits with your museum’s mission and goals, there’s no excuse to not do social media well.
Posting a tweet is easy. Posting one that’s well written and attention grabbing, one that’s engaging and fits the personality and quality of your organisation, is harder. Growing an audience and gaining their trust and time is harder still.
Social media is hard
Having just explained that doing social media well isn’t “easy”, that’s not to say it’s too hard to have a go. A light touch approach can still reap rewards, and it’s in this way that social media can come into its own.
If everything you do on social media chimes with your museum and its organisational goals or ethos, you’re in safe hands. Always bring it back to your museum, its scope and what makes it unique. Does it feel authentic? Real? On brand? Then own it.
Just know that as long as you’re able to think about social media in the same way you would anything else your museum does, and you’re able to devote time to growing and running the channels, maintaining a good presence online is not hard. It just needs time and effort.
Social media is scary
What if I do it wrong? Won’t joining Twitter just invite trolls to heckle us online? What if I make a mistake? What if our social media is boring? What if I post a photo of one of our paintings to Facebook and someone uses it on postcards and makes a fortune at our expense?
Before social media became a staple for brands, businesses and organisations, there were worries around the repercussions of museums getting on board. While a lot of that has since subsided, it’s not completely absent. It’s true that ill-advised social media activity can result in reputational damage (we’ve all seen it), but it’s easy to stay on track and be true to your museum’s ethos and integrity.
It’s also worth pointing out that social media isn’t the only place a museum could trip up, whether ethically, being tone deaf or similar. From exhibitions and events to marketing campaigns, and from merchandise to the language used, there’s always a risk that an organisation will slip up in some way. That’s no reason to avoid social media; rather, it’s something to be keenly aware of when running the channels, as it is in the rest of the museum’s work.
If nothing else, it’s highly unlikely that anyone will die because of a museum’s tweet.
Social media is fun
This one’s true! Just make sure to enjoy it: use your imagination and be playful to get the most out of it.
Social media is just marketing
This isn’t so much a myth, as it is a risk. If all you use social media for is to promote your programme and sell tickets or merchandise, then yes, it’s just marketing, but it’s also not doing social media well. Anyone can post commercial or marketing messages constantly, but that doesn’t mean they should.
Social media should be a mix of unique content, engaging conversation with your audience and other organisations, sharing and promoting the work of your audience and peers, and, yes, some marketing.
Choose the right channels for your museum
Don’t feel the need to be on every social media platform. In fact, stretching yourself too thin is not a good idea. Start with one or two and grow your audience, get a feel for the channel and get to grips with how much work is involved. If there’s a need, appetite and the capacity for more, then go for it if it’s manageable. But don’t get ahead of yourself! When choosing which channel to start with, think about what you want to get out of it, the audience you’re hoping to reach and the kind of content or presence you want your museum to have. If it’s all visual, maybe Instagram is a good choice; Twitter may be better for conversational engagement.
Use your unique selling point to stand out
Social media is a crowded place nowadays, but most museums are intrinsically interesting. Think about what sets your museum apart (its collection, setting, live programme, theme, etc.) and make your social channels funnel that in an engaging way.
Bad website? Social media to the rescue!
Not all museums are blessed with good (or even adequate) websites, so social media becomes even more essential to those organisations. Social media can give you a bit more control and allows you to show off your institution in the way that makes sense and is true to the organisation, even if, for example, your council-run website makes your users weep.
Involve your audience, don’t just broadcast to them
People don’t follow cultural organisations to be bombarded with marketing information. Fuel your audience’s imagination and pique their interest. And although many museums are good at putting out interesting, relevant and unique content, that’s just the start. Ask them questions and respond to theirs. If you see people talking about your museum, join in! Make it worth their while to follow you. Then, when you do have some marketing to do, it’s much less abrasive because the balance is right.
Be relaxed and social
Social media is just that: social. It’s also the place your museum can let its hair down a bit and be more relatable, whether that’s through a lighter (but still apt) tone of voice, or a full-blown use of memes and GIFs (again, as appropriate). It’s far stranger for a museum’s social media presence to be po-faced than it is for a museum to align itself with the tone of the channel it’s using. Although how that manifests is up to the individual museum and what it deems appropriate.
Balance your content
As well as sharing your own unique content, share relevant content from other organisations. This works because: by not always posting your own content, you come off as less self-absorbed, plus posting only your own content means having to create all the content you share (and risk watering down its quality); sharing others’ relevant content amplifies your institution as an authority on its subject area, making clear how generous and collaborative it is; and the small amount of marketing is handily offset by the other 90% of your content, and your audience will be more receptive to it (or at least more accepting).
Follow peer organisations and businesses
This is a great way to let people know you exist and that you’re open and collaborative. By following similar organisations, or those otherwise relevant to you, you build an invaluable network to support, help, champion and challenge you.
Be true to yourself
Audiences respond well to museums that feel authentic. Knowing what you’re doing and why counts for a lot, and it lets you take risks on social media, because if it feels true to the brand you’ll be OK.
One social channel can publicise another
If you have an established Facebook presence but have just started on Instagram, tell your Facebook audience so they can go and follow you there too.
You don’t just have to use other social channels to tell people about your new presence elsewhere, you can use your physical building to advertise your new Instagram account, perhaps by putting up signs welcoming visitor photography and including your handles [another word for username; on most channels, you can mention other people by using their handle].
It won’t be perfect every time
We all make mistakes. We all misjudge things sometimes. The trick is to learn from anything that doesn’t quite land and let that inform your future activities. Experimentation is vital to making an impact on social media, and too much fear of failing can hinder that. Try new things gently, see how people respond, and pivot accordingly. Importantly: own your mistakes.
Dos and don’ts
- Have fun, experiment, be social and have conversations
- Adapt content for different channels
- Follow other museums to see how they do it and ask for help or advice from museum folk on social
- Choose a relevant and clear handle
- Be inclusive
- Be accessible
- Check spelling and grammar
- Follow organisations from other sectors
- Get involved in sector-wide social media activities
- Stay true to your mission
- Just do marketing
- Ignore negative comments
- “Just give social media to the intern”
- Keep creating new Twitter accounts for every aspect of the museum; put time and effort into one
- Call anyone a social media “guru” or “ninja” or “maven” or “wizard”
- Watermark your images
- Post the exact same thing on each channel, tailor the content to the platform
Social media platforms: a quick introduction
When using social media as an individual, you typically follow accounts you are interested in so that your timeline shows content relevant to you. As an organisation, your presence on social media offers your audience a way to interact with you and gives you a channel to explore what your museum does in a different way. Because of this, it’s unlikely that you’ll follow most of the public who follow your museum. Keep it to organisations or individuals who are directly involved with you. You can still engage and interact with the wider public without following them all individually.
Think about what you want each channel to do. They have their strengths, so make sure you know the job each one is doing, so you can tailor your content accordingly.
All platforms offer a verification status for brand/business accounts. This is to combat bot or impostor accounts and is essentially a way for the platforms to make it clear to its users who to follow and to allow them to identify brands they trust. In all cases, verified accounts have a small blue tick next to their names on their profile.
The world’s biggest social media platform allows people to create profiles, upload media, send messages, keep in touch with friends and family, and follow brands and organisations. Check out our introduction to Facebook for museums.
- Biggest social media user base by far
- Its users spend a lot of time on Facebook and are invested
- Local audiences often very engaged.
- Limited organic reach (total number of people shown a post through unpaid distribution)
- Content often needs to be monetised to be seen
- Facebook’s teen problem: it’s lost its “cool factor” and significant numbers of younger users are less engaged in, or are moving away from, the platform
- Lends itself to more “broadcast” type content, as opposed to dynamic conversation or user-generated projects.
This “microblogging” network allows its users to send short posts with up to 280 characters and attach images/video. Check out our introduction to Twitter for museums.
- A conversational platform, great for one-to-one communication
- A relaxed and fun platform
- Makes museums more approachable, conversational and allows their sense of humour to come out
- Quick, snackable content.
- Short format can remove nuance from sensitive conversations
- Trolling and hate can be an issue in some cases.
The online photo and video sharing network allows people to upload and edit media through their mobile app. It started out photo-centric, but is now more focussed on short video content and being an online shop. Check out our introduction to Instagram for museums.
- Over 1 billion monthly active users
- Elegant and simple way to showcase great photos
- High engagement levels and highly engaged users, especially with newer formats on the platform
- Stories and Reels add an element of fun.
- Instagram has moved away from being a pure photo sharing platform and with that, some of its joy and simplicity has gone
- Through competing with Snapchat, and now TikTok, the platform has diverged in its USP and features many different format: grid photos, videos, Stories, Reels, shopping, etc. This can make it hard to know where to focus.
- The algorithm prioritises formats beyond the simple photo posts, meaning it can be hard to get much engagement with those.
This video-focused social network is all about short-form videos, from dance, comedy, education and beyond. They are 15 seconds to three minutes long. One of the fastest-growing social media networks, there are now over 730 million monthly active users. That’s more than Twitter and Snapchat. Check out our introduction to TikTok for museums.
- It’s a simple to use and straightforward app with a clear user interface
- With over 2 billion users worldwide, that’s a big audience to tap into
- It’s free to use and offers some really clever video editing tools
- With its collaborative nature of stitching or responding to people’s videos, you can engage in a fun way.
- While the interface is pretty simple, to really take advantage of the app, skill and practice are required
- The nature of the video content means relying on creativity and authenticity (you can’t simply post a one-liner or a single image)
- Its analytics only go as far back as 28 days, so you need to record them yourself regularly if you want to keep a lasting record.
This mobile app allows people to send and receive temporary photos and videos (called Snaps).
- Fun filters (overlays/graphics you add to Snaps])
- Geofilters (filters that can only be accessed in certain locations) you can make for your audience to use are affordable and fun
- Popular among young people.
- Awful interface, hard to use
- Virtually no statistics or analytics
- Instagram has adopted many of its features and has far more users
- TikTok quickly overtook Snapchat as the next big social media platform for young people.
The social curation website describes itself as a visual bookmarking site and allows people to share and categorise images found online.
- Allows a lot of control over the grouping of your content
- Lets you visually highlight different aspects of your museum through links to that content
- Gives you a space to highlight user-generated content
- Relatively small market share of social media users (175 million)
- Pinterest is pivoting more and more to an eCommerce channel, and less social media.
Should museums have a personality? by Russell Dornan
Lowering the tone: doing social media at Bodleian Libraries by Adam Koszary
A New Social Media Presence at the Royal Ontario Museum by W. Ryan Dodge
Please Turn On Your Phone in the Museum by Sophie Gilbert
Reflecting the Museum: How Instagram brings back seeing by Russell Dornan
EPIC Content: How to build high impact content by W. Ryan Dodge
Social media is stupid and museums should be too by Adam Koszary
A to Z of the Human Condition: I is for Individuality by Alli Burness
People to follow
Danny Birchall: Twitter
Ryan Dodge: Twitter
Kajsa Hartig: Twitter
Sara Wajid: Twitter
Jack Ashby: Twitter
Rob Cawston: Twitter
JiaJia Fei: Twitter
Kate Meyers Emery: Twitter
Tincture of Museum: Twitter
Lucy Redoglia: Twitter
Jenni Fuchs: Twitter (personal)
Alie Cline: Twitter
Mark B Schlemmer: Twitter
Meagan Estep: Twitter
Lexie Buchanan: Twitter
Seb Chan: Twitter
Adam Koszary: Twitter
Lori Byrd-McDevitt: Twitter
Mara Kurlandsky: Twitter
Lanae Spruce: Twitter
Sacha Coward: Twitter
Jack Shoulder: Twitter
Amy Fox: Twitter
Paolo Viscardi: Twitter
Essie Lash: Twitter
Museum Detox: Twitter